1. The Nationalist Movements In India | भारत में राष्ट्रवादी आंदोलन

The Nationalist Movements in India were organized as mass movements emphasizing and raising questions concerning the interests of the people of India. In most of these movements, people were themselves encouraged to take action. Due to several factors, these movements failed to win independence for India. However, they did promote a sense of nationalism among the people of the country. The failure of these movements affected many people as they withdrew from Government offices, schools, factories, and services. Though they did manage to get a few concessions such as those won by the Salt March in 1930, they did not help India much from the point of view of their objective.

The entry of Europeans | यूरोपीय लोगों का प्रवेश::

The entry of Europeans to the country started with the establishment of the spice trade in the 1400s when several European countries set up trading posts and colonial towns in the country. Portugal, the Dutch Republic, Denmark, France, and England all had a significant presence in the country beginning as far back as the 1400s (Portugal). It was England, however, that held the longest power in the country. After 1858, the British held colonial power after taking it from the East India Company which had been ruling since 1757.

Mahatma Gandhi And His Non-Violent Ways | महात्मा गांधी और उनके अहिंसक तरीके:

Mahatma Gandhi is perhaps the most widely recognized figure of the Indian Nationalist Movement for his role in leading non-violent civil uprisings. He first employed the non-violent approach in South Africa where he was serving as an expatriate lawyer. He was hurt and angry when he witnessed discrimination and exploitation of colored people under Whites rule. He organizes non-violent protests in the country which gained him fame and support from the people of South Africa. In 1921, he became the leader of the Indian National Congress, a nationalist political party in India, which demanded nondiscriminatory laws, equal rights for men and women, peaceful inter-religious relations, the overthrow of the caste system, and above all, Indian independence. During his lifetime, Gandhi carried out three major nationalist movements which are discussed below.

The Non-Cooperation Movement | असहयोग आंदोलन

  • The first of the Gandhi-led movements was the Non-Cooperation Movement lasting from September 1920 until February 1922. If the residents of a country stop co-operating with the British, then the minority Britishers would be forced to give up. This meant that people left their jobs, removed their children from schools, and avoided government offices.
  • The name Mahatma Gandhi became popular. However, the Non-Cooperation Movement ended when a violent mob erupted in Chauri Chaura in Uttar Pradesh. The individuals involved burned a police station, killing 23 police officials. Gandhi stopped the movement, remaining true to his stance on non-violent protesting. The abrupt ending of the Non-Cooperation Movement did nothing to stop the quest for independence.

The Dandi March | दांडी मार्च:

On March 12, 1930, protesters took part in the Dandi March, a campaign designed to resist taxes and protest the British monopoly on salt. Gandhi began the 24-day240-mile march with 79 followers and ended with thousands. When the protesters reached the coastal town of Dandi, they produced salt from saltwater without paying the British tax. This movement prompted nearly a year of civil disobedience, illegal salt production and purchase, boycotts of British goods, refusal to pay taxes, and the imprisonment of approximately 80,000 Indians. The movement earned national and international attention.

The Quit India Movement | भारत छोड़ो आंदोलन:

  • The Quit India Movement began on August 8, 1942, during World War II. The India Congress Committee, under the urging of Gandhi, called for a mass British withdrawal and Gandhi made a “Do or Die” speech. British officials acted immediately and arrested nearly every member of the Indian National Congress party.
  • The nation once again entered mass civil disobedience marked by anti-war speeches and refusal to assist in the war efforts. This movement introduced the idea to the British that they might be unable to maintain control of India.

The Cost Of Independence | स्वतंत्रता की लागत:

At last, on August 15, 1947, India gained independence from British rule. However, independence came at a huge cost. Hindus and Muslims who had fought side by side against the united enemy now had to be separated. On June 3, 1947, British rulers proposed an Act to separate British India into India and Pakistan. Thus, the hard work, sacrifice, and willpower of Indians led to the freedom of India from British rule.

Summary of Important Nationalist Movements | महत्वपूर्ण राष्ट्रवादी आंदोलनों का सारांश


2. CHIEF ELECTION COMMISSIONERS OF INDIA | भारत का चुनाव चुनाव आयोग

The Chief Election Commissioner and the two Election Commissioners who are usually retired IAS officers draw salaries and allowances at par with those of the Judges of the Supreme Court of India as per the Chief Election Commissioner and other Election Commissioners (Conditions of Service) Rules, 1992.

The Commission is served by its Secretariat located in New Delhi. At the state level, Election Commission is assisted by the Chief Electoral Officer of the State, who is an IAS officer of Principal Secretary Rank. At the district and constituency levels, the District Magistrates (in their capacity as District Election Officers), Electoral Registration Officers, and Returning Officers perform election work.


3. List of largest libraries in India | भारत में सबसे बड़े पुस्तकालयों की सूची

library is a collection of sources of information and similar resources, made accessible to a defined community for reference or borrowing. It provides physical or digital access to material, and maybe a physical building or room, or a virtual space, or both. For all those reading addicts, here is the list of 10 must-visit libraries in India that have amazing collections:


Location: KOLKATA

Established Year: 1836

It is the largest library in the country by volume and India’s library of public records. It is spread in an area of 30-acres. It houses 26,41,615 books along with other periodicals, maps, manuscripts, etc. The history of the National Library began with the formation of the Calcutta Public Library in 1836. It was opened to the public on February 1, 1953


Location: NEW DELHI

Established Year: 1951

It is the busiest Public Library in South Asia. It has a collection of about 18 lakh books in Hindi, English, Urdu, Punjabi & other Indian Languages- almost all subjects are represented in its collection. The Library is also the 4th recipient library under the provision of Delivery of Books & Newspaper (Public Libraries) Act 1954



Established Year: 1918

It is housed within the campus of Thanjavur Palace and had started as a royal library for the Nayak Kings of Thanjavur. It has a rare collection of palm leaf manuscript in various regional languages of India. In the year 1998, the library installed computers to computerize library activities.


Location: CHENNAI

Established Year: 2010

The total built-up area of this centralized air-conditioned library is 3.75 lakh sq. ft., which encompasses ground and eight floors and has a collection of 5 lakh books. It also has a Braille section to cater to the needs of blind readers. It also has a Braille section to cater to the needs of blind readers. It has a huge Conference Hall that can facilitate 150 members.


Location: GOA

Established Year: 1832

It was established on September 15, 1832 by Vice Roy Dom Manuel de Portugal e Castro as ‘Publica Livraria’. The status of Library was raised to that of a National Library on February 15, 1897. It has more than 1.8 lakh books in different languages. The total pre-liberation collection is over 40,000 volumes



Established Year: 1864

It has a collection of about 1.25 lakh books on various subjects. It has rare Arabic manuscripts along with papers of Parliament



Established Year: 1950

The total built-up area of the Library is 80,025 sq. ft. It has a single largest Reading Room of 10,600 sq. ft. which can accommodate about 1100 readers at a time. It has an impressive collection of rare books that include books as old as those dated back to the sixteenth century. Approximately 3,500 books are preserved in this precious collection, which comprises some noteworthy titles, which are out of Print.



Established Year: 1896

It is one of the four National Depository Libraries, which receive a copy of all books, newspapers, and periodicals published in India. It serves as a depository library for the UN

9. STATE CENTRAL LIBRARY, THIRUVANANTHAPURAM | राज्य केन्द्रीय पुस्तकालय, तिरुवनंतपुरम


Established Year: 1829

It has a total collection of 3,67,243 documents in different languages such as English, Malayalam, Hindi, Tamil, Sanskrit in various disciplines. The library subscribes to 27 dailies and 215 journals including foreign journals

10. STATE CENTRAL LIBRARY | स्टेट सेंट्रल लिब्ररी


Established Year: 1829

It has an impressive collection of 5,01,861 books. It also has a collection of about 17,000 rare and valuable manuscripts dating back to the 5th and 6th centuries

4. The Largest Deserts in the World | दुनिया में सबसे बड़ा रेगिस्तान


desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life. The lack of vegetation exposes the unprotected surface of the ground to the processes of denudation.

Deserts can also be described as areas where more water is lost by evaporation than falls as precipitation. This certainly applies in regions that are subject to “desertification”, where increasing temperatures (i.e. climate change) result in river beds drying up, precipitation patterns changing, and vegetation dying off.

Deserts are often some of the hottest and most inhospitable places on Earth, as exemplified by the Sahara Desert in Africa, the Gobi desert in northern China and Mongolia, and Death Valley in California. But they can also be cold, windswept landscapes where little to no snow ever falls – like in the Antarctic and Arctic.

So in the end, being hot has little to do with it. In fact, it would be more accurate to say that deserts are characterized by little to no moisture and extremes in temperature. All told, deserts make up one-third of the surface of the Earth. But most of that is found in the polar regions.

Antarctica | अंटार्कटिका:

In terms of sheer size, the Antarctic Desert is the largest desert on Earth, measuring a total of 13.8 million square kilometers. Antarctica is the coldest, windiest, and most isolated continent on Earth, and is considered a desert because its annual precipitation can be less than 51 mm in the interior.

There are no permanent human residents, but anywhere from 1,000 to 5,000 researchers inhabit the research stations scattered across the continent – the largest being McMurdo Station, located on the tip of Ross Island. Beyond a limited range of mammals, only certain cold-adapted species of mites, algae, and tundra vegetation can survive there.

Other Deserts | अन्य विवरण:

Interestingly, the second-largest desert in the world is also notoriously cold – The Arctic Desert. Located above 75 degrees north latitude, the Arctic Desert covers a total area of about 13.7 million square km (5.29 million square mi). Here, the total amount of precipitation is below 250mm (10 inches), which is predominantly in the form of snow.

The third-largest desert in the world is the more familiar Sahara, with a total size of 9.4 million square km. The average annual rainfall ranges from very low (in the northern and southern fringes of the desert) to nearly non-existent over the central and the eastern part. All told, most of the Saraha receives less than 20 mm (0.79 in).In short, deserts are not just sand dunes and places where you might come across Bedouins and Berbers, or a place you have to drive through to get to Napa Valley. They are common to every continent of the world and can take the form of sandy deserts or icy deserts. In the end, the defining characteristic is their pronounced lack of moisture.

The Largest Deserts in the World | दुनिया में सबसे बड़ा रेगिस्तान

Rank Name Place and Country Type Area (Km 2 )
1 Antarctica Antarctica Cold Winter 14000000
2 Arctic Artic Cold Winter 13985000
3 Sahara North Africa Subtropical 9000000
4 Arabian Desert Western Asia Subtropical 2330000
5 Gobi Desert Central Asia (China and Mongolia) Cold Winter 1000000
6 Kalahari Desert Southern Africa Subtropical 900000
7 Great Victoria Desert Australia Subtropical 647000
8 Patagonian Desert South America (Argentina and Chile) Cold Winter 620000
9 Syrian Desert Western Asia (Iraq, Jordan, and Syria) Subtropical 520000
10 Great Basin Desert United States Cold Winter 492000
11 Chihuahuan Desert North America (Mexico and USA) Subtropical 450000
12 Great Sandy Desert Australia Subtropical 400000
13 Karakum Desert Turkmenistan Cold Winter 350000
14 Colorado Plateau United States Cold Winter 337000
15 Sonoran Desert North America (Mexico and USA ) Subtropical 310000
16 Kyzylkum Desert Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan) Cold Winter 300000
17 Taklamakan Desert China Cold Winter 270000
18 Thar Desert South Asia (India and Pakistan) Subtropical 200000
19 Gibson Desert Australia Subtropical 156000
20 Dasht-E Margo Afghanistan Subtropical 150000
21 Registan Desert Afghanistan Subtropical 146000
22 Simpson Desert Australia Subtropical 145000
23 Atacama Desert South America (Chile and Peru) Cool Coastal 140000
24 Mojave Desert United States Subtropical 124000
25 Namib Desert Southern Africa (Angola and Namibia) Cool Coastal 81000
26 Dasht –E Kavir Iran Subtropical 77000
27 Dasht – E Loot Iran Subtropical 52000


5. Ministers of State | राज्य मंत्री

  • Minister of State (MoS) is junior to Cabinet Minister.
  • Each cabinet minister has a Minister of State.
  • Every MOS reports to either the Cabinet Minister or Independent charge of the ministry, they work in close coordination.
  • MoS is not called to the Cabinet meetings.
  • Besides the large box in which I was usually carried, the queen ordered a smaller one to be made for me, of about twelve feet square, and ten high, for the convenience of traveling; because the other was somewhat too large for Glumdalclitch’s lap and cumbersome in the coach; it was made by the same artist, whom I directed in the whole contrivance. This traveling-closet was an exact square, with a window in the middle of three of the squares, and each window was latticed with iron wire on the outside, to prevent accidents in long journeys. On the fourth side, which had no window, two strong staples were fixed, through which the person that carried me, when I had a mind to be on horseback, put a leathern belt, and buckled it about his waist. This was always the office of some grave trusty servant, in whom I could confide, whether I attended the king and queen in their progress, or were disposed to see the gardens, or pay a visit to some great lady or minister of state in the court when Glumdalclitch happened to be out of order; for I soon began to be known and esteemed among the greatest officers, I suppose more upon account of their majesties’ favor, than any merit of my own. In journeys, when I was weary of the coach, a servant on horseback would buckle on my box, and place it upon a cushion before him; and there I had a full prospect of the country on three sides, from my three windows. I had, in this closet, a field-bed and a hammock.
    1 Parliamentary Affairs, Statistics, Programme Implementation Vijay Goel Rajasthan Rajya Sabha
    2 Finance, Shipping Radhakrishnan P Kanyakumari, Tamilnadu Lok Sabha
    3 Drinking-Water and Sanitation S. S. Ahluwalia Darjeeling, West Bengal Lok Sabha
    4 Drinking-Water and Sanitation Ramesh Chandappa Jigajinagi Bijapur, Karnataka Lok Sabha
    5 Social Justice and Empowerment Ramdas Athawale Maharashtra Rajya Sabha
    6 Steel Vishnu Deo Sai Raigarh, Chhattisgarh. Lok Sabha
    7 Rural Development Ram Kripal Yadav Pataliputra, Bihar Lok Sabha
    8 Home Affairs Hansraj Gangaram Ahir Chandrapur, Maharashtra Lok Sabha
    9 Mines and Coal Haribhai Parthibhai Chaudhary Banaskantha, Gujarat Lok Sabha
    10 Railways Rajen Gohain Nowgong, Assam Lok Sabha
    11 External Affairs General (Retd ) V K Singh Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh. Lok Sabha
    12 Agriculture and Farmers Welfare, Panchayati Raj Parshottam Rupala Gujarat Rajya Sabha
    13 Social Justice and Empowerment Krishan Pal Faridabad, Haryana Lok Sabha
    14 Tribal Affairs Jaswantsinh Sumanbhai Bhabhor Dahod, Gujarat Lok Sabha
    15 Finance Shiv Pratap Shukla Uttar Pradesh Rajya Sabha
    16 Health and Family Welfare Ashwini Kumar Choubey Buxar, Bihar Lok Sabha
    17 Tribal Affairs Sudarshan Bhagat Lohardaga, Jharkhand Lok Sabha
    18 Human Resource Development Upendra Kushwaha Karakat, Bihar Lok Sabha
    19 Home Affairs Kiren Rijiju Arunachal West, Arunachal Pradesh Lok Sabha
    20 Women and Child Development, Minority Affairs Dr. Virendra Kumar Tikamgarh, Madhya Pradesh Lok Sabha
    21 Skill Development and Entrepreneurship Anantkumar Hegde Uttara Kannada, Karnataka Lok Sabha
    22 External Affairs M. J. Akbar Madhya Pradesh Rajya Sabha
    23 Food Processing Industries Sadhvi Niranjan Jyoti Fatehpur, Uttar Pradesh Lok Sabha
    24 Science and Technology, Earth Sciences Y. S. Chowdary Andhra Pradesh Rajya Sabha
    25 Civil Aviation Jayant Sinha Hazaribagh, Jharkhand Lok Sabha
    26 Heavy Industries, Public Enterprises Babul Supriyo Asansol, Uttar Pradesh Lok Sabha
    27 Social Justice and Empowerment Vijay Sampla Hoshiarpur, Punjab Lok Sabha
    28 Parliamentary Affairs, Water Resources, River Development, and Ganga Rejuvenation Arjun Ram Meghwal Bikaner constituency, Rajasthan Lok Sabha
    29 Textiles Ajay Tamta Almora, Uttrakhand Lok Sabha
    30 Agriculture, Farmers Welfare Krishna Raj Shahjahanpur seat, Uttar Pradesh Lok Sabha
    31 Road Transport, Highways, Shipping Chemicals and Fertilizers Mansukh L Mandaviya Gujarat Rajya Sabha
    32 Health and Family Welfare Anupriya Patel Mirzapur, Uttar Pradesh Lok Sabha
    33 Consumer Affairs, Food, and Public Distribution, Commerce and Industry C. R. Chaudhary Nagaur, Rajashthan Lok Sabha
    34 Law and Justice, Corporate Affairs P. P. Chaudhary Pali, Rajashthan Lok Sabha
    35 Defense Subhash Ramrao Bhamre Dhule, Maharashtra Lok Sabha
    36 Agriculture and Farmers Welfare Gajendra Singh Shekhawat Jodhpur, Rajashthan Lok Sabha
    37 Human Resource Development, Water Resources, River Development, and Ganga Rejuvenation Dr. Satya Pal Singh Sumawali, Madhya Pradesh

Ministers of State (Independent Charge)

  • A Minister of State with independent charge is a minister without an overseeing Cabinet Minister in the State or Union Government of India.
  • He himself is in charge of his ministry.
  • Moreover, such ministers can take part in cabinet meetings on important issues.
  • The king’s palace is no regular edifice, but a heap of buildings, about seven miles round: the chief rooms are generally two hundred and forty feet high, and broad and long in proportion. A coach was allowed to Glumdalclitch and me, wherein her governess frequently took her out to see the town, or go among the shops; and I was always of the party, carried in my box; although the girl, at my own desire, would often take me out, and hold me in her hand, that I might more conveniently view the houses and the people, as we passed along the streets. I reckoned our coach to be about a square of Westminster-hall, but not altogether so high: however, I cannot be very exact. One day the governess ordered our coachman to stop at several shops, where the beggars, watching their opportunity, crowded to the sides of the coach, and gave me the most horrible spectacle that ever a European eye beheld. There was a woman with cancer in her breast, swelled to a monstrous size, full of holes, in two or three of which I could have easily crept, and covered my whole body. There was a fellow with a wen in his neck, larger than five wool-packs; and another, with a couple of wooden legs, each about twenty feet high. But the most hateful sight of all was the lice crawling on their clothes. I could see distinctly the limbs of these vermin with my naked eye, much better than those of a European louse through a microscope, and their snouts with which they rooted like swine. They were the first I had ever beheld, and I should have been curious enough to dissect one of them, if I had had proper instruments, which I unluckily left behind me in the ship, although, indeed, the sight was so nauseous, that it perfectly turned my stomach.
1 Planning, Chemicals, and Fertilizers Rao Inderjit Singh Gurgaon in Haryana Lok Sabha
2 Labour and Employment Santosh Kumar Gangwar Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh Lok Sabha
3 Ayurveda, Yoga, and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homoeopathy (AYUSH) Shripad Yesso Naik North Goa Lok Sabha
4 Development of North Eastern Region (Independent Charge), Prime Minister’s Office, Personnel, Public Grievances & Pensions, Department of Atomic Energy, Department of Space Dr. Jitendra Singh Udhampur, Jammu Kashmir Lok Sabha
5 Culture, Environment, Forest and Climate Change Dr. Mahesh Sharma Gautam Buddh Nagar, Uttar Pradesh Lok Sabha
6 Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Giriraj Singh Nawada, Bihar Lok Sabha
7 Communications, Railways Manoj Sinha Ghazipur, Uttar Pradesh Lok Sabha
8 Youth Affairs and Sports, Information and Broadcasting Col. Rajyavardhan Singh Rathore Jaipur Rural, Rajasthan Lok Sabha
9 Power and New and Renewable Energy Shri Raj Kumar Singh Sarah, Bihar Lok Sabha
10 Housing, Urban Affairs Hardeep Singh Puri Uttar Pradesh Rajya Sabha
11 Tourism, Electronics and Information Technology Alphons Kannanthanam Rajasthan Rajya Sabha


6. Cups And Trophies Related To Sports | कप और खेल से संबंधित ट्राफियां


List of Summits is one of the most important topics from which questions are asked in various government exams. Here we are providing a list of summits in India.

Upcoming Summits In India :

Current Context: Prime Minister Narendra Modi will be participating in a virtual summit of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) on 4 May.

  • The aim behind this summit is to enhance the coordination of the member states in their fight against the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • The summit will identify measures for enhanced coordination among NAM members in their common fight against COVID-19.
  • The online session will conclude with a political declaration of the movement “uniting against COVID-19.”
  • The summit will be conducted under the Presidency of Azerbaijan and will be convened by President Ilham Aliyev.

Static Part:

  • Capital of Azerbaijan: Baku
  • The currency of: Azerbaijani manat


Q.1 The summit of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) 2020 to be conducted under which country’s presidency?
a. Algeria
b. Sri Lanka
c. Zambia
d. Azerbaijan
Name of the Summit Aim Venue
The 7th edition of India Energy Congress To create awareness of fuel and energy New Delhi
5th South Asia Region Public Procurement Conference To improve public procurement of member countries New Delhi.
12th International Conference on Corporate Social Responsibility To promote corporate social responsibility Bengaluru
International Conference on Unani Medicine To promote Unani medicine New Delhi.
4th meeting of the Economic Advisory Council To discuss the possible modalities of implementing the National Health Scheme New Delhi.
India-Russia Agriculture Business Summit To increase farming productivity New Delhi.
8th Theatre Olympics Promotes richness and diversity of theatre heritage in all kinds of experiments and research in the field of performing arts, At Red Fort, New Delhi
Global Conference on Pharma Industry and Medical Devices To create awareness of medical devices Bengaluru
2018 Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) summit To focus on security-related issues of the region especially on counter-terrorism cooperation. To be held in the city of Qingdao, China
2nd National Meet on Grass root Informatics To showcase the various initiatives of NIC in creating and enhancing the security of Digital Infrastructure in the country. at the India Habitat Centre, NewDelhi
3rd Global Procurement Summit To ensure transparency in public procurement. New Delhi.
World sustainable development summit To develop the world by bringing together all political leaders, decision-makers, etc. New Delhi’s Vigyan Bhawan
International R&D Conclave’– Emerging Opportunities and Challenges of R&D in Indian Power Sector, New Delhi
The22ndedition of the world Congress on Information Technology (WCIT) To promote digital innovation Hyderabad
National Conference “Agriculture 2022- Doubling Farmers’ Income” To identify various critical issues relating to agriculture and farmers’ welfare and finding appropriate solutions. At National Agriculture Science Complex (NASC), Pusa, New Delhi.
Canada – India Business Forum To promote Canada-India cooperation on a range of issues, atTaj Mahal Palace Hotel, Mumbai
UP Investors Summit Aimed to showcase investment opportunities and potential across various sectors in Uttar Pradesh Lucknow
Global Digital Health Partnership Symposium To ensure a district-level electronic database of information on health system components Sydney, Australia
India International Textiles Expo of India To promote textile business Sri Lankan capital of Colombo.
first International Solar Alliance (ISA) summit To launch 121 projects like E-Mobility and Storage, and Rooftop Solar during the summit Delhi, India
SAARC Business Leaders’ Conclave To promote investment, innovation, and entrepreneurship in the region. Kathmandu, Nepal
20th Conference Of Commonwealth Education Ministers To promote education Nadi, Fiji
Mega event MILAN 2018 views and ideas on maritime good order and enhancing regional cooperation for combating unlawful activities at sea Andaman and Nicobar Islands
International Conference on Sustainable Biofuels To accelerate global clean energy and innovation. At the Stein Auditorium, India Habitat Centre, New Delhi.
2nd India-Korea Business Summit Aims to create the framework for an open and action-oriented dialogue between top business leaders and Government officials from both countries. New Delhi, India
21stNational Conference on e-Governance To showcase investment opportunities in the State in the food processing, automobile, aerospace and defense, hardware, tourism, infrastructure, and other sectors. Vishakhapatnam, Telangana, Hyderabad,
Kabul Process Conference To discuss security and political issues Afghanistan
The Himalayan Hydro Expo 2018 To promote maximum benefits of hydropower producers, to explore the possibility of how building hydro projects Kathmandu, Nepal
first Persons of Indian Origin (PIO) Parliamentary Conference contribution of overseas persons of Indian origin (PIO) towards their country
4th International Dharma-Dhamma Conference Aim to share ideas, values and foster harmony at the global level and to celebrate the Silver Jubilee year of ASEAN-India Dialogue Partnership Rajgir in Nalanda district, Bihar
The 4th Annual Women Leadership Summit To discuss issues related to both men and women At IIM-Bangalore.
Australia India Youth Dialogue (AIYD) To promote exchange and partnership across organizations among talented young minds Mumbai and Delhi
Fourth ASEAN-India Ministerial Meeting on Agriculture and Forestry (AIMMAF) help to deepen and enhance the ASEAN-India cooperation in food, agriculture which includes animal husbandry, fisheries, and forestry New Delhi,
The 5th Bilateral Technical Meeting on cooperation in the field of Traditional Systems of Medicine To enhance cooperation to design and develop policies and strategies in the field of Traditional Medicine in Malaysia New Delhi
International Workshop on Disaster Resilient Infrastructure(IWDRI) Aims to take Disaster Resilient Infrastructure and global cooperation further New Delhi
The third edition of the geo-political conference, ‘Raisina Dialogue’ Aim to challenge issues globally New Delhi
65th Meeting of the Central Advisory Board of Education (CABE) To promote and reach the grassroots New Delhi
The 15th edition of BioAsia To discuss Prominent technology and bio-business convention in Asia for Life sciences, pharmaceuticals, and healthcare. Hyderabad
The International Solar Alliance Forum was held at To promote solar energy among its member countries. World Future Energy Summit, Abu Dhabi.
India-ASEAN business and investment conference To enhance connectivity via land to strengthen trade ties New Delhi
The 7th Asia Steel International Conference Provides a platform to exchange knowledge on various aspects of the global steel industry. Bhubaneswar
The 16th International Energy Forum (IEF) Ministerial meeting To promote energy across the globe New Delhi
International Dam Safety Conference Aims to discuss several issues related to dam safety Challenges across the globe Thiruvananthapuram
The third edition of the international spice conference Aims to Manage Disruptions through Transformation and Collaboration’. Jaipur, Rajasthan
The 21st edition of India International Seafood Show Focus on policies, market trends, technology, and roadmaps to achieve Goa
leadership conclave To promote the art of living New Delhi


8. Famous News Papers Names In The World | दुनिया में प्रसिद्ध समाचार पत्रों के नाम

  • They cost a “gazette” (a Venetian coin), which is why many newspapers have Gazette in their titles. The first crossword puzzle was published in a British newspaper called the Sunday Express in 1924. There are less than 1,000 newspapers left in the United States (the most we ever had was 7,689)
  • If everyone recycled their newspapers, we would save 250 million trees each year.
  • 99.4% of all retailers advertise their business in the newspaper.

Upcoming Updates | आगामी अपडेट:

Do you want to know what’s really going on? This page is made to enable you to get instant access to information about international and national issues from news sources with various, many-sided perspectives. With the links below, you have the news of the world at your disposal! But be careful not to read the news only to feed your own opinion. On this page, you will find a selection of links to the world’s major newspapers, news services, and broadcasters with high-level standards — internationally recognized and observed by millions of people around the world.

Facts or Opinions | तथ्य या राय

A fact is beyond dispute but an opinion is someone’s view, and it isn’t guaranteed to be true. An essential skill for reading news articles is to differentiate between a fact, and the case when it seems that someone tries to provide an opinion as fact.

Fact-check | तथ्यों की जांच

Not sure if a story is true? Cross-check a story with another (news)source, the more sources you can find for a story, the better. Check if the story is factual and PR-free.
Fast-check: Copy the headline of the story into a search engine, look at the results. The more references from trusted sources you will find, the more it is possible the story is true. If only dubious sources show up, the story is most likely not true.

Newspaper Country Language
The Yomiuri Shimbun Japan Japanese
The Asahi Shimbun Japan Japanese
USA Today USA English
Dainik Bhaskar India Hindi
Dainik Jagran India Hindi
The Mainichi Newspapers Japan Japanese
Cankao Xiaoxi China Chinese
Amar Ujala India Hindi
The Times of India India English
The Nikkei Japan Japanese
People’s Daily China Chinese
Chunichi Shimbun Japan Japanese
Hindustan Dainik India Hindi
Malayala Manorama India Malayalam
The Wall Street Journal USA English
Bild Germany German
The New York Times USA English
Guangzhou Daily China Chinese
Nanfang Daily China Chinese
Rajasthan Patrika India Hindi


9. National Symbols Of India   | भारत के राष्ट्रीय प्रतीक

  • The Republic of India has several official national symbols including a historical document, a flag, an emblem, an anthem, a memorial tower as well as several national heroes.
  • All the symbols were picked up at various times. The design of the national flag was officially adopted by the Constituent Assembly just before independence, on the 22nd of July in 1947.
  • There are also several other symbols including the national animal, bird, flower, fruit and tree and game.
  • The National Flag is a horizontal tricolour of India saffron (Kesari) at the top, white in the middle and India green at the bottom in equal proportion. The ratio of the width of the flag to its length is two to three. In the center of the white band is a navy-blue wheel which represents the chakra.
  • The top saffron color indicates the strength and courage of the country. The white middle band indicates peace and truth with Dharma Chakra. The green shows the fertility, growth, and auspiciousness of the land.
  • Its design is that of the wheel which appears on the abacus of the Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka. Its diameter approximates the width of the white band and it has 24 spokes. The design of the National Flag was adopted by the Constituent Assembly of India on 22 July 1947.
  • National Anthem | राष्ट्रगान

    The National Anthem of India Jana-Gana-mana, composed originally in Bengali by Rabindranath Tagore, was adopted in its Hindi version by the Constituent Assembly as the National Anthem of India on 24 January 1950. It was first sung on 27 December 1911 at the Kolkata Session of the Indian National Congress.

    The complete song consists of five stanzas. The first stanza contains the full version of the National Anthem.

    Playing time of the full version of the national anthem is approximately 52 seconds. A short version consisting of the first and last lines of the stanza (playing time approximately 20 seconds) is also played on certain occasions.

  • National Song | राष्ट्रीय गीत

    The song Vande Mataram, composed in Sanskrit by Bankimchandra Chatterji, was a source of inspiration to the people in their struggle for freedom. It has an equal status with Jana-Gana-mana. On January 24, 1950, the President, Dr. Rajendra Prasad came up with a statement in the Constituent Assembly, “the song Vande Mataram, which has played a historic part in the struggle for Indian freedom, shall be honored equally with Jana Gana Mana and shall have equal status with it.”

    The first political occasion when it was sung was the 1896 session of the Indian National Congress. The song was a part of Bankimchandra’s most famous novel Anand Math (1882).

  • National Flower | राष्ट्रीय फूल

    Lotus (Nelumbo Nucifera Gaertn) is the National Flower of India. It is a sacred flower and occupies a unique position in the art and mythology of ancient India and has been an auspicious symbol of Indian culture since time immemorial.

    India is rich in flora. Currently available data place India in the tenth position in the world and fourth in Asia in plant diversity. From about 70 per cent geographical area surveyed so far, 47,000 species of plants have been described by the Botanical Survey of India (BSI).

S. No Category Symbol Related Persons / Details
1 National Flag of India  The horizontal rectangular tricolor of India saffron, white and India green; with the Ashoka Chakra, a 24-spoke wheel, in navy blue at its center Our National Flag was designed by Mr. Pingali Venkayya of Andhra Pradesh. It was adopted during a meeting of the Constituent Assembly held on 22 July 1947.
2 State Emblem of India An adaptation from the Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka It is preserved in the Varanasi Sarnath Museum in India. the emblem was officially adopted on 26 January 1950.
3 National Anthem of India “Jana Gana Mana” It was composed in Bengali by poet Rabindranath Tagore. was adopted in its Hindi version on 24 January 1950. It was first publicly sung on 27 December 1911 at the Calcutta (now, Kolkata).
4 National Song of India “Vande Mataram” It is a Bengali poem written by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee in the 1870s, which he included in his 1881 novel Anandamath. The poem was composed into a song by Rabindranath Tagore. The first two verses of the song were adopted as the National Song of India in October 1937 by Congress Working Committee prior to the end of colonial rule in August 1947. After Independence, it was adopted on Jan 24th, 1950.
5 National Pledge It was originally written by the Pydimarri Venkata Subba Rao ( an author and a bureaucrat) in the Telugu language in 1962. First, it was read in the Visakhapatnam in 1963 in a school. Later it was translated to various regional languages accordingly. The practice of reciting it in the schools was introduced in 1965 on the 26th of January
6 National Currency Indian Rupee The Indian rupee symbol is derived from the Devanagari consonant “र” (ra) and the Latin letter “R” was adopted in 2010. Udaya Kumar Dharmalingam born 10 October 1978 in Kallakurichi, Tamil Nadu is the designer of the Indian rupee sign. He is an assistant professor at IIT Guwahati.
7 National Calendar of India Calendar based on Saka Era Usage started officially at 1 Chaitra 1879, Saka Era, or 22 March 1957. Meghnad Saha was the head of the Calendar Reform Committee. The “Day of Silence”, is a celebration of the Saka new year in Bali.
8 National Animal of India Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris Tigris) Adopted in April 1973. The largest carnivore is found only in the Indian subcontinent
9 National River of India River Ganga It was declared on November 4, 2008. The Ganga is the longest river in India flowing over 2,510 km. It originates in the snowfields of the Gangotri Glacier in the Himalayas as the Bhagirathi River.
10 National Heritage Animal of India Indian Elephant (Elephas maximus Indicus) Declared on October 22, 2010, by the Environment Ministry of India.
11 National Aquatic Animal of India Gangetic Dolphin (Platanista Gangetica) Declared on 5th October. Guwahati is the first Indian city to have an animal Mascot as Gangetic river dolphin, It is the first city in India to have a city animal. River dolphin is locally known as Sihu
12 National Bird of India Indian peacock (Pavo cristatus) Declared on February 1, 1963. Indian Peacock or Blue Peacock (Pavo cristatus).
13 National Tree of India Indian banyan (Ficus bengalensis) Adopted in 1950.
14 National Flower of India Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera)  It is a sacred flower and occupies a unique position in the art and mythology of ancient India and has been an auspicious symbol of Indian culture since time immemorial.
15 National Fruit of India Mango (Mangifera indica) The great Moghul emperor Akabar had planted about 100,000 mango trees in Lakhi Bagh in Darbhanga.
16 National Microbe Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus It has been announced on October 18, 2012, during the International Conference on ‘Biodiversity Conservation and Education for Sustainable Development’ held at Hyderabad during CoP-11. The microbe was selected by children who had visited the Science Express Biodiversity Special Train.


20. List Of Countries and their Parliament Names | देशों और उनके संसद नामों की सूची

As India has Rajya Sabha and Lok Sabha as the two houses of parliament, similarly other countries too have different houses of parliament.

The word “Parliament” comes from the french verb “Parler” which means “to speak/talk”. The meaning evolved, originally referring to any discussion, conversation, or negotiation through various kinds of deliberative or judicial groups, often summoned by a monarch.

Parliament is the highest legislative body in a country. It represents the people, makes a law, and oversees government functioning. In England, the Sovereign, the nobles and clergy as well as the commoners represented the Parliament in medieval times.

Now it consists of the Sovereign, the House of Lords, and the House of Commons. British Parliament is considered the mother of all parliaments in the world.

In India, the President, the Lok Sabha, and the Rajya Sabha constitute the Parliament. While the tenure of the Lok Sabha is 5 years unless dissolved earlier, the tenure of members of Rajya Sabha is for six years.

While the members of Lok Sabha are directly elected by the people, members of Rajya Sabha are indirectly elected by members of State Legislative Assemblies. Unlike Lok Sabha, it is a permanent body and one-third of its members retire every two years. It is also called the Council of States.

The legislature of different countries is known by different names. The legislature in the USA is called the Congress which consists of the House of Representatives and the Senate.

List of Countries and their Parliament Names
Country Parliament Name
Afghanistan Share
Albania People’s Assembly
Algeria National People’s Assembly
Andorra General Council
Angola National People’s Assembly
Argentina National Congress
Australia Federal Parliament
Austria National Assembly
Azerbaijan Melli Majlis
Bahamas General Assembly
Bahrain Consultative Council
Bangladesh Jatia Parliament
Belize National Assembly
Bhutan Tsogdu
Bolivia National Congress
Botswana National Assembly
Brazil National Congress
Britain Parliament (House Of Commons And House Of Lords)
Brunei National Assembly
Bulgaria Narodno Sobranie
Cambodia National Assembly
Canada Parliament
China National People’s Assembly
Colombia Congress
Comoros Legislative Council And Senate
Congo Democratic Rep. Of National Legislative Council
Costa Rice Legislative Council And Senate
Croatia Sabor
Cuba National Assembly Of People’s Power
Denmark Folketing
East Timor Constituent Assembly
Ecuador National Congress
Egypt People’s Assembly
El Salvador Legislative Assembly
Ethiopia Federal Council And House Of Representative
Fiji Islands Senate & House Of Representative
Finland Eduskusta (Parliament)
France National Assembly
Germany Bundestag (Lower House) &
Bundesrat (Upper House)
Great Britain Parliament
Greece Chamber Of Deputies
Guyana National Assembly
Hungary National Assembly
Iceland Althing
India Sansad
Indonesia People’s Consultative Assembly
Iran Majlis
Iraq National Assembly
Ireland Oireachtas
Israel The Knesset
Italy Chamber Of Deputies And Senate
Japan Diet
Jordan National Assembly
Korea(North) Supreme People’s Assembly
Korea(South) National Assembly
Kuwait National Assembly
Lebanon National Assembly
Laos People’s Supreme Assembly
Latvia Saeima
Lesotho National Assembly And Senate
Libya General People’s Congress
Lithuania Seimas
Luxembourg Chamber Of Deputies
Madagascar National People’s Assembly
Magnolia Khural
Malaysia Majilis
Maldives Majilis
Mongolia Great People’s Khural
Montenegro Federal Assembly
Mozambique People’s Assembly
Myanmar Pyithu Hluttaw
Nepal Rashtriya Panchayat
Netherlands States-General (Staten-General)
New Zealand Parliament (House Of Representative)
Norway Storting
Oman Monarchy
Pakistan National Assembly & Senate
Papua New Guinea National Parliament
Paraguay Senate & Chamber Of Deputies
Philippines The Congress
Poland Sejm
Romania Great National Assembly
Russia Duma & Federal Council
Saudi Arabia Majlis Al-Shura
South Africa Parliament
Spain Quotes
Taiwan Yuan
Turkey Grand National Assembly
Uruguay General Assembly
USA Congress
Uzbekistan Oliy Majlis
Vietnam National Assembly
Zambia National Assembly
Zimbabwe Parliament


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